Microcontroller (Microcontroller) in the word is made up of two words micro meaning small and small and controller meaning controller and it means micro controller or micro controller. So microcontroller means micro controller, micro controller or small controller. Microcontroller in the term means a programmable integrated circuit (IC – Integrated Circuit) that contains the components of a computer in small dimensions and is used to execute a program.
That is, the microcontroller is an IC in which the CPU, memories and inputs/outputs are placed, and this IC is capable of executing a specific program written by the user for the microcontroller. Microcontrollers are also known as MCU, which stands for Micro Controller Unit. A microcontroller is a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) IC that includes an electronic and logical computing unit (known as the CPU), memory, I/O ports, and a number of other elements.
All these units, as mentioned, are placed together in one chip. Sometimes microcontroller is also called computer on a chip or single-chip computer. Because microcontrollers contain all the main units of a computer in smaller dimensions and have a function very similar to a computer. Microcontrollers, like computers, have input, processing and output. Since microcontrollers along with their related circuits are often embedded in devices that perform the control action, microcontrollers are also called embedded controllers.
Microcontrollers are used in many places today. If a device does things like measuring, storing, calculating, controlling, and displaying information, that device has a microcontroller. In the following, we briefly talk about the history of microcontrollers, the difference between microcontroller and microprocessor, the internal units of microcontrollers, the application of microcontrollers, etc.
Existing Terms About Microcontrollers Before entering into more explanations about microcontrollers, we felt it necessary to express some words and phrases that are used between engineers and people interested in the world of microcontrollers. Micro This word is the same as microcontroller, which has been termed among engineers and electronics enthusiasts to make it easier to pronounce.
Program or program or programming or programming. These expressions are called microcontroller programming by computer and programmer. ARM Microcontroller, ARM Microcontrollers Actually, there is no ARM microcontroller. ARM Holdings is the name of the company that designs processors with ARM architecture. ARM microcontroller is so-called (and wrongly) microcontrollers whose processors are built using ARM architecture.
The world’s first microcontroller and the beginning of the creation of the microcontroller. The invention of the microcontroller (the first computer on a chip) dates back to 1971. When Intel was inventing the world’s first microprocessor, an engineer from Texas Instruments named Gary Boone managed to build the first microcontroller. This microcontroller, called TMS1802NC, had 128 bits of RAM and 3000 bits of ROM and could be used to make a calculator.
This microcontroller was later redesigned and became part of the TMS100 series. TI used TMS100 microcontrollers in their computing products from 1972 to 1974. The company launched the TMS1000 series in 1974 and sold 100 million TMS1000 microcontrollers by 1983. It should be noted that TMS100 and TMS1000 microcontrollers had a 4-bit processor. In 1973, the patent of the first single-chip microcontroller was granted to Gary Boone.
In these years, in addition to manufacturing microprocessors, Intel also started manufacturing microcontrollers. The 8048 microcontroller from the MCS-48 series released in 1976 was Intel’s first microcontroller. 8035 and 8748 microcontrollers were also among the first MCS-48 series microcontrollers. The popular and widely used 8051 microcontroller was introduced by Intel in 1980.
Image 1 – Two products from TI company from 1972 Image 2 – Two TMS1000 series microcontrollers Image 3 – TMS1802NC microcontroller, the world’s first microcontroller Today’s microcontrollers Many companies make microcontrollers today. In terms of architecture, power consumption, working voltage and frequency, the amount of memory and hardware facilities, today’s microcontrollers have made significant improvements compared to the microcontrollers made in the 70s of the 20th century.
Silicon Motion Intel Altera Sony Lattice Semiconductor Analog Devices Spansion Microchip Technology Atmel STMicroelectronics National Semiconductor Cypress Semiconductor Texas Instruments NEC Maxim Integrated Toshiba NXP Semiconductors ELAN Microelectronics Corp Ubicom Nuvoton Technology EPSON Semiconductor Xemics Panasonic Espressif Systems Xilinkx Parallax Freescale Semiconductor XMOS Rabbit Semiconductor Fujitsu ZiLOG Renesas Electronics Holtek Rockwell Hyperstone Silicon Laboratories Infineon Table 1 – List of manufacturers of common microcontrollers in the world.
The difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor and a microcomputer. First, we define a microprocessor, a microcomputer and a microcontroller. What is a microprocessor? Microprocessor is the processor core of any digital system, where all calculation and logical operations on data and decision-making operations are performed by this department. A microprocessor is a CPU that comes in the form of an integrated circuit (IC).
Many companies make microprocessors, including AMD, IBM, Intel, Philips, NEC, Motorola, HP, Atmel, Sharp, Sony, Zilog, and Tesla. Among the most influential microprocessors are the following: Intel 4004 Intel 8080 ARM2 processors Intel 8088 MOS Technology 6502 Z80 AMD Opteron 240 RCA COSMAC CPD 1802 AIM PowerPC 601 Motorola 68000 Intel Pentium Figure 4 – What is the Intel 4004 microprocessor? A microcomputer is made of a CPU (microprocessor) and other blocks including inputs/outputs, memories, ADCs, DACs, etc.
on a printed circuit board (PCB). Computers, DIY kits, Intel computers in the 1970s, and the TRS-80 are examples of microcomputers. Picture 5- What is LiNC80 kit with Z80 microcontroller processor? When the blocks of a microcomputer are implemented on a silicon chip, a microcontroller is made. In the microcontroller, CPU blocks, memory, ports, timer, ADC and serial interfaces (such as USART and SPI), interrupt unit, etc.
are implemented on a silicon chip. That is, the mentioned blocks are all placed together in one IC. Among the well-known microcontrollers, the following can be mentioned: AVR microcontrollers such as ATmega32, ATmega16, ATmega128, ATtiny13, ATtiny26; LPC microcontrollers such as LPC1768 and LPC1788; STM microcontrollers such as the STM32F1 series; PIC microcontrollers such as PIC18F2680, PIC16F877 and PIC16F874.
The difference between a microcontroller, a microprocessor, and a microcomputer, as it comes from their definition, a microprocessor is the same as a CPU, but if the microprocessor is placed next to other blocks such as memories, ports, timers, ADCs, etc., on a printed circuit board (PCB) give, a microcomputer is formed. But the microcontroller includes a CPU along with memories, ports, timers and other peripheral blocks in a single chip in the form of an integrated circuit (IC).